Essays – food for thought…


Conscious Connections 

Why do civilisations fall? Why do ages turn? In our western teaching of the history of this shared world, we have passed through dark ages, the middle ages, the renaissance, the enlightenment and we are still 300 years short of where we are, and moreover, have not included any of the human history prior to the birth of Christ! History is constantly being made by human endeavour alone. But human beings, mankind (two perfectly good words, in their own right but, perhaps not so good together as one) is neither alone, nor does it act alone.
We share the planet with a plethora of perfectly evolved creative creatures, that have themselves, by their own endeavours, adapted the environment for we humans to take advantage of, as we so often have adapted it, equally unwittingly, for them. We know that some of these species are so reliant on each other for mutual survival, that they have a shared life/death cycle that allows their shared environment to support each species without allowing either or any one to dominate the other but more significantly, not to dominate the land.
The relationship between the North American caribou and the grey wolf that preys upon it and depends upon it, as no other large mammal inhabits such northerly latitudes on that continent, is an example. Biologists who have surveyed these migrations for decades, have come to the same conclusion that the indigenous people had already come to scores of generations earlier, after having had to watch (and themselves having had to rely on) the migrants for thousands of years, to learn their habits and the habits of the wolf packs that followed and harried them without relent.
South African scientists have also learned, or rather have relearned (the San Bushmen who have lived on these lands for thousands of years had previously learned the knowledge for themselves), that acacia bushes in the Kalahari desert of southern Africa are aware that if there is imminent danger of being overwhelmed by grazers, the plants can communicate the danger, chemically, to surrounding acacia shrubs which can enhance production of a toxin strong enough to kill almost immediately. It will ensure that this hardiest of bushes will survive, to hold the soil together and prevent the disaster that would be desertification. Animals that pay no heed pay the ultimate price, as scores of herbivores discovered all to late during one particularly arid, dry season. The mass, simultaneous casualties alerted the wildlife authorities and they could get to the bottom of the matter. The chemicals that led to the deaths of the animals was left behind in the blood and could be traced to the acacia bushes that they had fed on, the only vegetation that had survived that searing summer.
Consciousness seems to be a constant in nature, whether it be the humble acacia or the somewhat less humble German Shepherd, that leaps into a furious current to rescue her drowning master. In that instant, realising the nature of life and of death. Upon dragging the eternally indebted master to the safety of the shore, she resumes her role as the cuddly, clumsy, canine companion.
Cycles are a constant of nature and a constant in our human history too. Are they mutually exclusive? Or are they not more likely to be themselves inter-connected, as other natural cycles have been discovered to be? In both the testament and the writing of ancient scribes, shaman and story keepers, cycles of time are a known phenomenon and within these ages or eons, are cycles of civilisation, of influence, the influence of man and the influence of nature; on earth that means the climate and geography but there is also the location of the earth itself, relative to it’s neighbours and the position of other celestial entities. Each of the planets in our solar system and the other heavenly bodies that we can see and can not, have cycles.
The men and women who had been crossing the land bridge between the eurasian and american continents, to participate in the life cycle of the deer and the wolf, were also bringing with them, their cultures, their costumes and their chromosomes. As the grazers left a scent trail for the carnivores to follow, the nomads left a genetic trail for the students of such a thing, to follow in the future. The indigenous peoples of the far east of what is now Russia, people are alive with the same genetic code in their blood as the people that we call Native Americans have pumping through theirs. They are the same. They just moved.

If we take a look at the haplogroup (genetic family) R1b, that can be found in the DNA of the Cherokee, the Seminole, the Chipewyan and three other tribes of North American natives, we discover that it is also the haplogroup to which belong upwards of seventy per cent of the peoples of the British Isles, around sixty per cent of Iberians and Frenchmen, almost half of the modern day German and Italian populations, as well as being the genetic group of particular clans from Chad, in north Africa and of the Rajputs from Rajasthan, in western India, who are unlike the other Kyshatriya castes of northern Indian states, who are predominantly of the R1a haplogroup. The origins of R1b can be traced to central Asia, where it emerged from it’s parent group, ‘R’, to give us the original R, R1b and later, R1a. R1b is recorded by modern geneticists as being R1b, from bodies dated to around 13 300 BC in modern day Armenia. Before this time, when it emerged in it’s own right, it was part of the parent group that emerged in Tanzania 190 000 years ago as group A*; taking 145 000 years to travel no farther north than to Kenya, where it had mutated, and was now part of the haplo super group, KLT. By 38 000 BC it had arrived in the lands of a future Persian capital, Persepolis. At 32 000 BC the men carrying that particular sequence of genes were in what is now Tel Halaf, in the Levant and it is known as the, ‘Scythian P’. It split in the area of another future Persian capital, the present seat of government, Tehran. The group that headed east from here carried their R1b inheritance across the length of the largest of land masses, to Samarkand, Bishkek, Novosibirsk and onto Krasnoyarsk, the last point in Asia before crossing into the americas.
At Krasnoyarsk too, there was a parting of the ways. Not all, it seems stayed put or journeyed on toward the rising sun. Some headed south and east, to Ulan Batar (present day Mongolia) and to Ulanqub, where it again fractured, with a few going on to the coast, modern Shendong, in China, among whose population today can be found a remnant of that ancient migration. Others had gone west and those that did stopped at Zhangye in 2370 BC, before Khotan in Tibet and crossing into the subcontinent, to the plains of the northern India. The Jatts and the Kushans (sub clade, R1b1a2), who were among the invaders from the north, had emerged around 3500 BC, at Bashkortostan, in today’s Russia to the north of the Tibetan plateau. The high altitude desert of Tibet was bypassed by the northern route and the deserts of eastern Persia and the Gobi desert both had to be negotiated either by passing to the north or to the south. No groups dared pass directly through these inhospitable and dangerous wildernesses.

Those who had not headed east into the morning sun, all those thousands of years before distant relatives would arrive on the plains of the Punjab, headed north west and south. Those that stayed in the caucuses are there today, the heartland of the R1b clade. Many haplogroups were at this time clustered around the Black Sea, which was a freshwater sea at that time and a haven for many, as much of Europe was uninhabitable in a line north of the Pyrenees, the Alps and on toward the north east. Populations and therefore their genetic codes, were compressed by necessity, a consequence of the ice age that covered most of Britain and Scandinavia and which had reached it’s maxim by 13 000 BC when R1b was in it’s infancy. The retreat of suffocating sheets of ice allowed for the advance of humanity into virgin lands.
From their lands on the eastern shores of the Black Sea, men carrying the marker moved very quickly to Rostov-on-Don, on the northern shore and on into Europe proper; firstly to Romania and on to Greece, with each of these settlements providing corroborating evidence for the marker R1b L23. Hungary, L57, Germany and Poland, L11, France, P312, Spain, DF 27, and the British Isles, L 21. Brethren who left Armenia around the same time, 13 000 BC, arrived first in Anatolia where many settled and others retraced their ancestors footsteps south, back into Africa and Egypt, giving rise to the tribes we came to know as Copts, Berbers and Fulani. From Egypt some migrated across the continent to the area round Lake Chad, as had others, notably the Dogon people of the western Sahel, whose migration into relative wilderness, preserved the ancient knowledge of the Egyptian culture that they had left behind. As a consequence of the ground breaking research undertaken by the American, Dr Laird Scranton, who successfully decoded the hieroglyphics used by the Dogon and realised that these symbols and the symbols used by ancient Egyptians were effectively one and the same. The people who would become the Dogon were originally from Egypt.
The same cycle of mutation and migration is replicated in each of the haplogroups, that run from A through until T. By the time the R1b clade had emerged, mutated and migrated, those belonging to it would be found on every continent, be of every variety of human skin colour, hair and eye colour, be from clans of tall men and from clans of short men. They would become both celtic clans and native american clans, he could be the pharaoh, Tutankhamen or Prince Charles Edward Stuart.
The tiger is thought to have evolved in the cold climate of northern Asia, some 1.6 – 1.8 million years ago, before migrating south, changing as it did so, to meet the demands of the new environments that they encountered. The fossil record shows that they had also used the same Bearing Straight land bridge crossed by the R1b’s and many others, to Alaska. By the late Pleistocene period, it is thought that the tiger had crossed the Himalayan ranges and into the heat of the subcontinent, into the lives of the people already there, making their living from the most fertile of lands, however most people would probably feel confident in asserting that tigers were in India long before it had been populated by people. By the time it had arrived in the steaming jungles and sweltering sal forests, the ancestral tiger had mutated according to climate and had become two distinct species, each with their own subspecies, the Bengal being but one of the continental group that included the Siberian and Caspian, South China and Indo-Chinese, and the Malay.
The closest living relative of the tiger, is the snow leopard. They shared a common ancestor until approximately 2.88 million years ago when they split from the other big cat (panthera) species, whence beginning their separate and distinct lives on the same, shared continent. From that mutual ancestor have come two beautiful cats but one is spotted and one is striped.
According to Hindu lore, that culture is around 40 000 years old, meaning that the tiger, the mount of Shakti or Durga would have had to have been incorporated into the pantheon of deities. Prior to the incarnation of Durga in India during the Vedic era, the tiger was being depicted on the seals of the Indus civilisation, that predated the aryan migration by a number of millennia. Furthermore, the area of the central asian steppe that it is assumed that they had departed from in the second millennium before the birth of Christ, would itself have been home to tigers when peninsular India was not.
Precession theory alerts us to the reality that the angle of the earth itself changes every 23000 years by 23.5 degrees, effectively meaning that the north star changes from being Polaris to Vega. A cycle that was identified, understood and monitored religiously by Mayan, Greek, Egyptian, Dogon, Sumerian, Babylonian and Hindu priests alike. The earth turns and the ages turn. Times do indeed change and every living and non living thing are affected, completely impotent in the face of the extraordinary cosmic forces, unleashed in a timely fashion, again and again. Within each of these enormous cycles of time are shorter ages. Irrespective of the culture, the priests were aware that, although each age begins with a golden dawn, as time moves on, that initial light loses it’s power to illuminate and as time slides ever onwards and farther from that original blast of consciousness, the age darkens until it comes to the natural end of it’s cycle and it turns again, into the light of a golden age.
When creatures, men or beasts, evolve, they must do so, by definition, at a particular time, and that point must fall within a time that is golden, or in a silver age, a bronze or in the darkness of an iron or black age. The Vedic priests identified these chapters of time within each successive age and other aforementioned cultures, from all points on the globe, albeit with a different view of the same cosmic spectacle, corroborate such an understanding. Indeed, even the venerated books of the modern day monotheistic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, are based on this ancient premise that there is a beginning and there is an end and according to their testament, that end time is upon us.
In a golden age of consciousness, a spiritual and immaterial utopia, the illusory nature of everything is apparent. As time drifts on so things evolve, physically, materially. We learn more, discover more, develop our environment more and more until at this point, we have changed much of it out of all recognition and usefulness. We have moved from, or mutated from the spiritual to the physical; even the interpretations of holy books have become based on the physical, whether they be strips of land, buildings, relics or clans or tribes of flesh and blood creations. According to the keepers of the ancient knowledge of Egypt, the monuments of Giza and other places were not built by slaves but by sound. Hospitals were built for doctors to cure by water, specifically by the sound that it makes as it flowed through constructed networks of tunnels. Sound, light and water are of course material, however they are the original material that allows everything else to live. Everything has come from these.
In the twenty first century, deep into the age of darkness, far from the original conscious state, far from the spirituality and immaterialism of our nature, we are being educated to invent things that require to be physically manufactured, everything that previously we could to with our senses. We have evolved into twenty haplogroups, some with scores of sub-clades. Each identifying and defining themselves, perhaps as an individual but one who is part of a broader culture or community, from a particular place on a map, from a particular tradition of values. Most have lost the belief in the values they still maintain that they subscribe to. They have become fixed physical entities; they believe they were always from their homeland, the homeland has never changed. No one migrated and mutated. There is no magic. There is no illusion. Everything that we have built will remain, as our own, as we intended them, our cities, our cultures, our civilisations and our conscious thoughts.
The history of mankind, and that of the nature, of which we are all a part, tells us, if we really take the time to think, a very different story. A beautiful story of creation consciously connected.





Twelve Degrees of Seperation

From the creation of Adam, until the birth of Noah (as a significant proportion of the world believes), there are eleven generations of his line; Adam, Cain and his brother, Abel, Seth, Enosh, Cainain, Mahalaleel, Jared, Enoch, Methuselah and Lamech, before we arrive at Noah, born, it is written and said, in 3300 BC. Although there are documented eleven generations, born between the dawn of civilisation and the great flood (believed to have been an historical event by almost the entire world’s population) that would drown every living creation, other than Noah, his three sons and their wives, there are twelve individuals named specifically; Cain always being mentioned together with his sibling, Abel.
So, as the story goes, for the first score of centuries since this perfect creation, by an omnipotent creator, these twelve men lived longer lives than any of their contemporaries managed to do on this infant earth and they possessed extraordinary, superhuman powers, that each had inherited as a consequence of their blood connection to the original manifestation of human consciousness, their ancestor, Adam. Were these men the guides for the burgeoning human population who had been blessed by a birth in a bountiful and boundless world?
May I suggest that it is not a coincidence, that from one of the Vedic perspectives, according to the Vishnu Purana specifically, there were twelve Adityas or divine, holy men, who were born from the womb of the Goddess, Aditi, the wife of Kasyapa, the son of Marichi, (son of Brahma), and his wife, Kala, and from their twelve sons grew the human race. Grew civilisations. In Book 3, Chapter 134, verse 18 of the Hindu epic, Mahabharata, Ashtavakra writes, ‘and twelve, according to the learned, is the number of the Adityas.’
To complete this triumvirate of twelves, are the haplogroups (human genetic family groupings) beginning with ‘A’, and running alphabetically (though not always chronologically), through until, ‘L’. At group ‘K’, the most recent, there was a fracturing, the very same splintering that our friends from both the ancient Hebrew and Hindu traditions had taught had happened in the long forgotten past, when the earth was still being populated by migrating clans of families, forging new nations and creating cultures that would over time develop into civilisations, some of which would shine for thousands of years as material entities and indeed, some of them continue to influence our existences as individuals and as civilisations today.
Could not these twelve individuals, irrespective of their whether their names be spelled and pronounced according to the Hebrew or the Hindu tradition, correspond to the twelve haplogroups, each emerging one after the other, until clade ‘L’ split from it’s sibling, ‘K’, leaving it alone, the earth already having been peopled by the migratory nature of the human ‘beast’.
Group A emerged as an outburst of consciousness, allowing group BT to emerge later as it’s sibling. Two initials together (unlike the other clades, in which, as a rule, each capital letter represents a particular genetic line) that contained the necessary genetic information for all the mutations that would follow over time. Similarly, in the line of relatives that descended from Adam to Noah, only Cain and Abel, the second generation, are mentioned together as a pair. Those men who came after, are mentioned alone, as individuals, as themselves, irrespective of whether or not they had any brothers. Like BT.
From BT came B, before mutating (M168) to give group CT. All the haplogroups that emerged after B retain the evidence of that mutation, that occurred some 65000 thousand years ago. Group B had emerged in central Africa about eighty thousand years ago and spread across the continent, sharing it with men carrying the genetic information that we associate with group A. Today the B lineage is found in significant proportions almost exclusively among the men of the Pygmy tribes of the Congo rainforest in tropical Africa. These people today, are still dominated by the Bantu African (E) population, who overwhelmed and displaced them myriad years previously and who continue to surround their forest home with the pasture necessary for the livestock that remains the mainstay of their economies and societies. There is next to no trace of group B outside of Africa. They seemed to have been fixed to the land that they worked, unlike group C that emerged around 60000 years before our present age, whose men would become the aboriginal Australian clans upon reaching that continent, after moving along the coastline of the Arabian, Indian and Malaysian peninsulas, as well as reaching and first populating the new world. They arrived there so early that Australia had not yet developed as the island continent that we know today. The ‘C’s’ have left their genetic imprint all along their journey, their clade still significantly represented in communities throughout the middle east, the subcontinent and south east Asia. It suggests that they migrated, looked for and found places to settle and develop. Along the way, Clade D had arrived on what today are known to us as the archipelagos of Japan and the Andamans’, each of which may have been connected, or at least partially so, to the Asian mainland at that time. Group D had also arrived on the plateau of Tibet, an unlikely destination for anyone looking for lands with hospitable environmental conditions, upon which they could settle. One clade in three distinct groups, far apart from each other geographically and linguistically, and each community survives to this day in relative isolation, genetically speaking. The ancient indigenous Aino people of Japan (and southern Russia) and the the indigenous people of Tibet and the Andaman Islands have each retained their cultural heritage to some degree, but more importantly, the knowledge of the great antiquity of their ancient ancestors. People and their places still visited today by anthropologists and the like, all trying to unravel and decode their deeply held knowledge. The immediate sibling of the D’s are the E group. They spread south through Africa, conquering all before them and seeding almost all of her with their genetic sequences and displacing the A and B groups that had previously experienced that massive continent by themselves. Rather like the aryan tribes are assumed to have done many millennia later. Clade F would give rise to the group GHIJK, approximately 50000 thousand years before present. At the point of the emergence of F, there was a mutation (M89) that is carried by all men who would follow until today.
Could it be that these were the original castes to populate the world and make the growth and development of civilisation both possible and inevitable? In one of the Hindu traditions, God had pulled four castes of human beings out of his own body, each designed and imbued with the skills necessary for humanity as a collective to progress. To build society requires a collection of skills to be present simultaneously in place and time and working in harmony. These four clades emerged around the same time as each other, approximately between sixty and sixty five millennia ago. Several more tens of thousands of years would pass until the conglomerate of clades that had grown out of F, GHIJK would bring a third diffusion of four castes into society, the castes that would provide us with revolutions in farming (perhaps haplogroup G), commerce (perhaps haplogroup J, the semitic peoples) and would become the ancestral, industrious, Europeans (haplogroup I).
At the time that clades I and J had split away from K, groups L and T (previously known as K2) had emerged in their own right, having been dormant in the jumble of letters (clades), biding their time. Clade L is now found in it’s highest density along the Malabar coast of India (Kerala) and in the area of the delta of the Indus River, and in the high mountains, from where it emerges into the plains. The heartland of the former Indus/Harappan civilisation. By the time that clade K had seen it’s siblings grow up and leave the GHIJK family nest, each of the earth’s land masses had been colonised, if not every landscape. That would come with the virtual disintegration of K, sending pioneering new clades into unexplored virgin territories.
Can the disparate understandings of the Divine be reinterpreted as being one in the same story and can that story, that appears to fly in the face of the modern scientific theory on the origins of the human race, be demonstrated to be a true testament of our common culture, by the knowledge gained by the scientists themselves, in the field of genetics? Has the earth actually been formed, complete with man and beast? Populated by successive outbursts of consciousness, representing the four castes necessary for evolution of society? Guided by divine sages, each a guardian of an age. Does the movement, on it’s axis of the earth itself, every 23000 years, known as the precession cycle, correspondent with the mutation of clades? Coincidence always seems to be an unlikely answer when trying to explain away these connections, in a world that appears to us as being fundamentally magical, from whichever perspective that you want to look at it from.






Haplogroups I and J split from each other somewhere in present day Iraq. What they did subsequently is rather interesting. The J’s migrated from there to completely encircle the Mediterranean Sea. The southern European coastline was predominantly populated by J2’s while the J1’s peopled Africa’s northern shoreline. The I’s on the other hand, moved from the Levant, north west into southern Europe; occupying the Balkans, Iberia and the Italian peninsula. Beyond the Alps and the Pyrenees lay tundra and ice. As the ice age retreated, the I’s advanced, crossing both of these snow capped mountain ranges into the north, into the lands that would millennia later become Germany, France, Scandinavia and Britain. The J’s had settled the coasts and the I’s the interior.
The I’s went against the current and spread upstream, from the Black Sea along the blue Danube, right into the heart of Europe. In ancient times rivers were highways and the Danube is a navigable river; slow moving, broad and deep for much of it’s course. Effectively, this river extended the accumulated knowledge of the various civilisations of the age, far into the forested hinterland of central Europe. Is it in the nature of I haplogroup people to seek the shadows and the wildness of the woodlands?
Their direct sibling, J, seemed to demonstrate an entirely different disposition. That group headed for where they could look directly at the distant horizon; where sea spoke to sky. Where they could taste the salt of the ocean in the air. Salt, that most coveted commodity of countless completed centuries. In the subsequent forays from their birth place in Iraq, whether they made them by land or by sea, they always kept close to the sea. They circumambulated, settled and civilised the Mediterranean coastline.
Like J, I had also split into two (a third strain emerged later). The I1a Germanic/Nordic strain (and I1b Germanic/Saxon) dominated in the lands of the north; Scandinavia and Germany. I2 dominated and continues to have a significant presence in the population in the Balkans, notably Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania, however I2 is also present south of the Pyrenees and the Alps. These ancient populations of I’s have not moved much. Strains have remained in significant numbers where they had at first emerged in the Stone Age.
As happened with I, group R split into two, with one of the groups fracturing again. The R2’s that moved south into the subcontinent, we will reluctantly ignore for this piece, however from the other half came the R1a and the R1b clades, and this pair of brothers are of interest to us here. Europe today, all of it, is dominated by either one clade or another. Southern and western areas by R1b (Indo-European) and the east of the smallest continent, by R1a (Eurasian).
Broadly speaking, in the modern era, those areas of Europe that we associate with the Slavic people are overwhelmingly belonging to the R1a clade and the Celtic west belonging to R1b. The Scandinavians and the Germans are more mixed; the latter being located in the middle of the continent, geographically speaking and therefore draws from all sides. The Scandinavians and Germans also had the influence of being in the heartland of the original I population. It may also be true that in our imagination, the west and south of Europe, the Celtic lands, are associated with the countryside with agrarian societies. It is also worthy of note, that the Scandinavians have the most balanced populations, from a haplogroup point of view; split roughly between I’s, R1a’s and R1b’s, with none being particularly dominant. Is it a coincidence that today we consider the Danes, Norwegians and Swedes to have constructed the most progressive, pluralistic and balanced nation states in Europe. They are neither skewed one way nor t’other. From Germany eastward, the imagination conjures more industrialised societies. Proletariats rather than peasants.
May I suggest that the Indo-European R1b’s of Anatolia and the Crimea, were one half of what would become Celtic Europe. They migrated through North Africa into Iberia and from the Anatolian region, directly into the Balkans, fusing with the indigenous I’s to create the basis for modern western european societies. The R1a clade (which is actually a later mutation than R1b but found earlier!), emerging on the Asian steppe, were the first, it seems, to domesticate the horse. The fact that the horse was expected to work, gives me some latitude when describing this momentous step as being a primitive form of industrialisation.
By the time the R1a horsemen had ridden across the eastern European plain, the I’s and R1b’s had established themselves and their interconnected Celtic cultures from the Atlantic seaboard to the frontier in the east. From the Middle East they had brought their agrarian knowledge and shared it.
The R1a’s brought their ‘industrial’ knowledge, the horse. They never made it farther than to the centre of the continent, to the area occupied by Germany today but their input into the genetic soup of the areas that they did settle in, perhaps created the Germanic cultures of central Europe, that today are considered to be the model of industry and industriousness. The small, independent farms of the British Isles, France, the Low Countries, Spain and Italy have always really been the backbone of their societies, historically speaking. That notion changes when the formidable natural barrier that is the River Rhine is crossed. Westward from here these days means traveling through countries full of industry, some heavier than others. Of course there are farms in the east, people grow food everywhere, just as there is industry to be found in the west (lest we forget that the industrial revolution took place in Britain, although I would suggest that, that had more to with the nature of the people’s relationship with the church and state, and those institutions with themselves, than with genetics), however the proportionality is different just as it is in the case of the genetics of individuals from different countries.
As in any brood of brothers, one will be this way inclined, another that way so. And the more that there are, then the more scope for various inclinations to develop and be passed on. The chances are, is that they’ll all end up working in a different field from one another, perhaps even in a different factory!






Picts, Gaels and Scots

When the tribe of Chatti arrived in Scotland at the beginning of the christian era and became the embryonic clan Keith, they assimilated with the people known to us by their Roman name, the Picts. They however, knew themselves by another name, the Kalti or Kelti. We are aware of this fact from the written work of the Roman scribes, who quite naturally filled in the details of the unknown that they were expected to.
Where the Picts came from and who they were, other than the carvers of often monumental monoliths and the speakers, readers and writers of a script we are still yet to decipher, understand and know, remains mysterious to the masses.
They themselves believed that they were the descendants of the Goddess Brigid, considered to be sacred and benevolent across the disparate communities of the ‘Celtic’ world. Kenneth MacAlpin, considered to be Scotland’s first king, was a descendant through his mother, as all Pictish kings were, as a consequence of their matrilineal system of inheritance. To the Gaelic speakers who had arrived in Ireland, the Picts of what they called Alba (Scotland) were known as the Cruithne, which translates into English as ‘wheat growers’, and that name too was to be found in use in Ireland at that time to describe the non-Gaels. Their land was known as Cruithentuath. The Cruithne had populated Ireland before the arrival in Hibernia of the Gaels from Iberia.
In the Irish chronicle, the Book of Lecain, it is written that from Noah came Japheth and then father after son, Fathecht, Mais, Buain, Agnoin, Partilan, Luchtai, Cinge and Cruithne who himself produced the seven sons, Cait, Ce, Cirig, Fib, Fidach, Fotla and Fortrem, each of whom were Kings of the seven provinces or Kingdoms of Cruithent. The Greek historian Strabo, writing in the First century A.D, asserted that the Picts or Kaltis had been displaced to Scotland from the Celtic lands of Gaul, which he called ‘Galati’, by the Samaritans, whose soldiers had invaded from beyond the river Rhine and from the mountains that are now part of Switzerland. In fact, he tells the reader that they had arrived in ‘Celtae Galatea’ from Asia Minor where they had been known as the Kaldees or Galat from Galatia, the area that was formally the lands upon which the Hittites had built their capital of Hattusha. Are they the same people as the Chaldeans who migrated from the neighbourhood of Sumer, north toward Anatolia?
The Gaels themselves recorded their descent through time in the Lebor Gabala, written in the eleventh century A.D. It claimed that their ancestor was a Scythian King, Fenius Farsaid, also a descendant of Japheth and one of the seventy two chiefs who began the construction of the ill-fated Tower of Babel. His son Nel, wed the Egyptian Princess, Scota and from that union came the son, Goidal Glas, from whom came the Gaelic culture and language (one of the original seventy two tongues that emerged following the curse on the seventy two Chieftains intent on building a tower to talk to God!). Nel and Scota spent their time in Egypt before they left for Spain, leaving at the same time that the Hebrews departed. Wherever they left to, they brought with them the accumulated knowledge of that civilisation.
The Hebrew Bible or Old Testament is of course, where we first read of the Tower of Babel or Japheth, as well as his second born son, Magog. From the Romano/Jewish historian of the first century A.D, Titus Flavius Josephus, born Yusef Ben Matityahu, we learn that from Magog are descended the Scythians. Could it be that from the fist born son of Japheth came the Picts and from the second born came the Gaels? The biblical Tribe of Dan has often been connected with the story of Ireland, particularly with one of the founding people of that land, the Tuath De Danann, which can translate as the ‘tribe of Dan’.
The Dan Hebrews, who occupied a coastal territory in ancient Israel, were mariners and merchants. They were also of the lands of Crete and Greece, from where they left at the time of a great famine and the schism within the House of David that saw the ten northern tribes seceding over the ascension to the throne of Solomon’s son, Rehoboam, before a reconciliation and the reunification of the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel. These were concurrent events. According to history, from the Greek islands they arrived in Denmark, giving that place it’s name. Interestingly, the peopling of the rest of Scandinavia began at Denmark, for obvious geographic reasons, therefore it would have been possible for the Tuath De Danann to have arrived in Ireland from the north, as the Irish chronicles inform. Scotland too, is to the north of Ireland.
According to the ancient myths of Ireland, (recorded at different times, in different languages and by different peoples) upon the arrival of the Gaels on the island, Ireland was inhabited by a people who were known to history as the Tuath De Danann. According to legend, the first Gael ashore was met by the three high Kings of the Tuath De Danann, MacCuill, MacCecht and MacGreine, accompanied by their Queens. The story continues that a deal was struck, and the Gaels agreed that they would wait on board their ships anchored offshore, in the meantime one of the Queens conjured a tempest with the intention of scattering the invading fleet however it abated with the magical words of a Gaelic poet. In the end the surviving Gaels, or Milesians, as they were known to the Tuath De Danann and to the chroniclers of the time, landed and agreed that Ireland should be split between them; the Gaels taking the ground of the island and the Tuath De Danann inheriting the underground, where they would continue to live as the fairy people of fable.
The Tuath De Danann had themselves invaded Ireland, relieving those they knew as the Fir Bolg, of their command. Scholars assert that the Fir Bolg were the celts displaced from the area of today’s Belgium which was being incorporated into the Romanised world. That would confuse things, as the dates for the Roman advance on Belgae are to late to fit. Or are they? Legend asserts that the Fir Bolg were descendants of 5000 people who had originated in Greece and arrived in Ireland from there after first traversing continental Europe as far as the English Channel.
Were the Tuath De Danann and the Cruithne one and the same people? By becoming the fairies residing in the underworld or spiritual world, they became eternal. Their symbols, names, histories and legends would become part of the high culture of the Gaels of Ireland and remain so, as indeed happened across the water in Scotland, where the spiritual heritage of the Picts or Cruithne was the glue that held together the new society forged by their merging with the Scots of Dal Riata, to create a Gaelic Scotland. The standing stones, the Stone of Destiny, the Stone of Tara, the Book of Tara. The names. Eire, the gaelic form of Ireland, comes from Eriu, one of the triumvirate of Goddess’s of the Tuath De Danann and the wife of King MacCecht. Her sisters Banba and Fotla have given their names informally and poetically, to their land. Fotla was also a son of Cruithne. Could he instead have been a daughter, perhaps more appropriate in a matrilineal succession? Sons and daughters sharing the kingdom.
Is it not reasonable to suggest that the mass displacement of populations that occurred around the globe but specifically for this piece, in North Africa, the Levant, Anatolia and the Black Sea area, during the seven years of famine, between 1703 B.C and 1696 B.C was the primary driving force for the settlement of Scotland, Ireland and much of north western europe, for that matter? This catastrophic calamity, that was recorded from China to the Americas in literature and in the rings of trees, forced starving aryans from their desiccated grasslands, over the Hindu Kush towards the civilisation of the Indus valley. It drove the Scythians westward too, into Europe and thus creating the Celtic nations of Europe, that over time themselves spread westward until being isolated there millennia later.
We can see that the seafarers of the Mediterranean had already established intercontinental trade routes. The builders of the monuments of the Middle East had already navigated our northern European coastline. It doesn’t stretch the imagination to see the connection between the Levantine leviathans and the Pictish stones at Callanish, both constructed to monitor and honour the sun and his cycle. It seems that the ancestral origin myths, retained and remembered by the modern Scots and Irish are borne out.
In my recent article, ‘Names from the Near East’, it is asserted that there was a fusion between the Hittites of Anatolia and the Picts. Were they already familiar with each other from their shared time together in the Middle East, the crucible of modern civilisation? Each of the original waves of invaders of what would eventually become the British Isles, launched themselves from the Mediterranean. It seems that they moved because famine had caused the collapse of their societies. City states were collapsing. Civilisations too. Sumer, like it’s teacher, Harappa also collapsed at this time, perhaps forcing it’s most famous son, Abraham, credited with teaching science to the Egyptians, to begin the migration that would allow him to fulfil his God given duties to teach. The first to reach those windswept northern shores built the structures that allowed civilisation to exist, specifically to track time. Each of the civilisations in that area at that time were polytheistic, solar worshippers. They had emerged from the same root, one teaching the other and pushing knowledge of the material world farther along the road of discovery. They brought all their knowledge and customs with them. They also brought their spiritual inheritance and it has never left us.







Names From the Near East

Thinking of Scotland, as I do from the somewhat similar mountains of northern India, which have been my home for near on twenty years, I do so from a rather Indian perspective, that of families, clans and tribes living on land that they consider to be their ancestral land, however with the understanding that those same ancestors had themselves migrated from their ancestral lands in a far off past kept alive in stories from both manuscript and memory.
What began as a fascination with the origins of the peoples of the the Himalayan ranges led quite naturally to an interest in where we all come from, our origins. The Indians of course, as the most ancient of civilisations, had an understanding themselves of the world, how it was made, when and, more importantly for this piece, who populated it and where they settled.
One of the more ancient of the Vedic texts that form part of the ‘liturgy’ of the Hindus (which we were all, at one time, in our human history) is the code of Manu, the lawgiver, not in coincidentally similar to Maru, the lawgiver of Japanese culture, or Minos of Crete or Moses who we are perhaps more familiar with. The laws of Manu tell that from the caste of the Kshatriyas sprung the peoples they knew as Yavanas and we know as Greeks; the Pahlavas or Persians, others who would eventually form the cultures of Siam, China, Burma and Tibet and the people known to us as Scythian but to the Sanskrit writers, as Saka.
The Scythian are mentioned too in the Old Testament, as are many of the same names of the nations of people described and located in other contemporary texts and tablets. The Egyptians and the Hittites of Anatolia being the two others who were to play leading roles and help us to make significant strides in understanding the ancient and transcendental culture that was to become Scotland.
In the Scottish peoples’ Declaration of Arbroath, which our readers will no doubt be familiar with, the authors gave a brief history of their forefathers, their journeys and the Europe of that time. Although written in the 14th century, the document is remarkably similar to the stories written in the centuries before by Greeks, Romans and the English writer, Bede, to name but a few.
The Seventh Century Saint Isidore writing in his Encyclopaedia of Knowledge, drawn from ancient Latin and Greek sources, recorded that the ancient inhabitants of what is now Spain and Portugal and was then known as Iberia, were the war-like Haspernians, a name not too dissimilar to the Hibernians of Hibernia or Ireland. We know that the Atlantic seaboard provided the route for genes to move from south to north as northern europe was repopulated after the ice that had marked that age had receded and reshaped the land and sea. The genes had names and names tell stories even if they change after generations of whispers.
The Scots of Ulster and Dal Riata asserted that they had hailed from the marriage of an Egyptian pharaoh’s daughter, Scota and a Scythian general of her father’s army who had refused to pursue the Israelites as they fled across the Red Sea. They settled in exile with their entourage in Ulster as the Scots and then Scotland, giving our country their and her name.
In the old German spoken in the ancient times, the word for Scotland and for Scythian is the same, Scutten. The Scythian peoples dominated the steppe north of the Black Sea at that time. A matrilineal culture who painted their bodies and who had developed an extraordinarily high standard of craftsmanship with metal, particularly gold, they faded from history at about the time that scholars first begin to describe another matrilineal, body painting, metal working people, the Picts. Were they the same people?
Pictland was an amalgamation of minor kingdoms, the northernmost being Cait, that eventually would give it’s name to the county we know as Caithness. To the Gaelic speakers of Dal Riata and Ireland, the part of Pictland known as Cait, was known as Cataibh, meaning ‘among the cats’ and to the Norse speaking Orcadians it was called Katanes, ‘Headland of the Cats’.
According to the seventeenth century historian, Sir Robert Gordon, in the century after Christ, AD 82, two boatloads of warriors had arrived in Caithness from their lands in Friesland, Batavia, known as the Netherlands these days, where they had made their home after retreating to there from the southern part of the Roman province of Germania, in the area of modern day Hesse, which had been occupied by the legions of Rome in the decades that had preceded. These people were the Catti. History goes on to tell us that the chief of the Catti had married a daughter of the Pictish King, Brude and by the time Kenneth Mac Alpin, King Alpin had joined the Scottish and Pictish thrones, the Senachies had named Gilli Chattan Noir as the chief of the Catti and from him are descended Clan Keith and also the clans of MacKenzie, MacPherson, Sutherland and Davidson, known as the confederation of Clan Chatten.
In old German, Hesse was known as Hatti, the same name that they gave to the Hittites of Anatolia, to the south of the Black Sea and the same name the Hittites knew themselves by. The Egyptians knew the Hittites as the Kethi. The emblem of both the Hatti (Kethi) and the Catti (Hatti) was the black cat. The black cat remains on the banners of the Earls of Sutherland and Clan Chatten, each themselves descendants of the Catti/Pictish nobility.
The Indo-European Hittites had been amongst those at the forefront of the civilisations of the time, pioneers of bronze age’s technological advancements, they had been the first to introduce codified civil and criminal law, indeed the first example of an international peace treaty to conclude a war is between the Hittites and the Mitanni of northern Mesopotamia, signed by their leaders, under oath before the Indic Gods, Varuna, Indra, Mitra and Nasatya. A copy of this legal first adorns the United Nations building in New York City, a testament to what can be achieved by mediation rather than militarism.
Scotland was populated from the collapsing civilisations of the Mediterranean and the near east; from the Hittites and Scythians of the Black Sea, the Egyptians and dare I say, some of the sons of Esau who had married into both Hittite and Egyptian royalty and whose genetic characteristics of red hair and blue eyes are still disproportionately found in the blood of the Scots. Around the globe, between one and two percent of people have red hair, a figure that rises to thirteen percent in Scotland, with almost 40 percent being carriers of the allele. In the Ashkenazy Jewish community significantly higher than average levels of red hair be detected, but not nearly to the same level found amongst the modern day Scots and Irish. Indeed, eastern europe and Russia, red hair was associated with jewry and in Spain during the inquisition, red hair could be a death sentence based on the same prejudice.
The building of Hadrian’s Wall guaranteed that those families on the northern side were isolated, the distinctive system of clans that would come to define the country could develop and the ancient bloodlines that had long before sought refuge and sanctuary on the fringes of the known world, could bond and maintain themselves as a united collective amidst the mayhem and murder that would come to mark the dark and middle ages. The fact that these people remained out with the formal roman empire, meant that they could define themselves as being free and independent as well as maintaining their distinctive culture until the union with England in 1603. Indeed Samuel Johnson, the doctor of letters who gave the world the first English dictionary and who was the preeminent English academic of his time, had lamented, that with a Stuart on the throne in London, the Jewish habits of the Scots had infiltrated and polluted the good Christian peoples of his green and pleasant lands.
Perhaps these habits stemmed from those early settlers from the middle east who gave us the contents of their memory and their minds, as well as the confidence that emanates from a successful, proven people. It is this ancient heritage, that is embedded in the subconscious of our people, that has meant that to this day we will always consider ourselves as being free and independent irrespective of our circumstances and as being Scots from Scotland.







Horses, Cows and Celestial Creatures 

When I think of the aryans of the ancient times, I think of Central Asia, the steppe, a horse culture that could enable their language, sanskrit to spread, at a gallop, so to speak, westward and south, to form the basis of virtually every European and many subcontinental languages in the millennium before Christ.
The domestication of the horse on the steppe was perhaps the principle driving force behind Sanskrit’s spread to the west. Today, both Europe and much of Asia have retained an equestrian culture and indeed, when the Spanish arrived in the americas they brought with them the horses that would eventually form the backbone of the cultures of both the invaders and the invaded. However that horse culture never arrived in the subcontinent, in spite of the fact that Sanskrit had and the people whose language it was are most associated with it, specifically India, in the modern sense of the name’s usage.
Had the aryan warriors of the plains of Asia, crossed the mountains of the Hindu Kush and successfully invaded the plains of what would one day become Punjab, on horseback, then would not that animal, that beast that they had at one time held so dear that they be buried with it, remain an integral part of Indian culture today? The language remains. The Vedic gods remain. The Vedic texts remain. But where are the horses? Would successful invaders abandon such an advantage?
Upon arrival in the subcontinent the aryan clans appear to have adopted the cow as an animal around which their society would be built. Not the horse. The cow became divine and the workhorses became buffaloes, or elephants (also considered to be divine). Were these the creatures that were venerated by the indigenous peoples whose land had been overrun? Was it the spiritual culture of the vanquished that was to conquer the souls of the victors?
At the time that the aryans are thought to have been migrating south and west, other sophisticated cultures, eclipsing that of the aryans themselves, existed in other parts of the world. In the americas, the Mayan people had mapped the firmament, developed a sophisticated calendar and built extraordinary pyramids, it seems without the use of the wheel. Their temple complexes, we are taught, like those of the Incas of the Andean ranges, were built using primitive technologies-at best, and yet the gigantic blocks were placed so precisely, that even after hundreds, sometimes thousands of years of weathering, a cigarette paper could not find a home between them.
In North Africa, the Egyptians enjoyed a culture that was thriving, perhaps even declining at the time the aryans arrived in the northwest frontier of ancient India. They too had developed a civilisation that was sophisticated enough to have also accurately mapped their celestial environment and kept good time with their calendar. Few in the world have not heard of the pyramids of Giza or are not able to recognise an image of the Sphinx. The pyramids of Giza and those at the other sites that run north to south along the Nile valley; Abusir, Saqqara, Dashur, Abu Rawash, Lisht and Meidum, the first true pyramid, were too, extraordinary works of engineering; precision cut stones without the tell-tale signs left behind by the chatter of the craftsman’s chisels. The keepers of the ancient traditions of Egypt’s indigenous culture, insist that the stone blocks from which monuments and their accompaniments were built, were cut from the rock using sound, therefore cutting as precisely as we may achieve today with a laser. Sound and light technology was available to, and understood by the ancient civilisations.
Contemporaneously with the culture of the Nile, were those of the Euphrates; Sumer and Babylon, circa 4500 BC-1900 BC and 2300 BC-1000 AD respectively. Beyond the similarities in architecture and astronomy, are more subtle likenesses; the high esteem in which the cow was held, a rice based culture, a priestly caste distinct and more highly regarded than those born into the ruling class and all existing in a climate and terrain very different to the North African and Arabian deserts that we know them to be today.
In none of the civilisations mentioned above does the horse play a significant role at all. Of the hundreds of deities of Sumer and Babylon, the horse goddess, Silili, is mentioned only once in the Epic of Gilgamesh, recorded on the sixth tablet (line 57), of the seven on which it was originally written, in Sumerian cuneiform, some 2000 BC. Neither does the horse appear in the spiritual consciousness of the early Egyptians, indeed the horse was not introduced there until 1600 BC when the Greek speaking Hyksos people invaded them.
The Harappan civilisation, of the Indus Valley, perhaps the most ancient of all of those that are known to us, that flourished some time between 4000 BC and 1500 BC, shows no signs of horses until about 2100 BC, to which point in time, an equine skeleton found in an excavation, Surkotada, at Rapar Taluka, in the Kutch district of Gujarat, has been dated. The site had been discovered by Dr JP Joshi in 1964 and further work with his colleague, Dr Sharma has unearthed more skeletons that date from between 2100 BC and1700 BC. These dates fall within the time frame that it is widely accepted by scholars as being the era during which the aryan migrations began, bringing with them an established culture on the backs of their horses. Needless to say, other artefacts were reacquainted with the stare of the human eye, that shed ever more light on who the Harappan’s were, who they traded with, were influenced by, who they themselves influenced and perhaps, where they had come from, including copper seals almost identical to those found on Egyptian tablets. How had their civilisation emerged from next to nothing until reaching it’s zenith, around 3000 BC, by which point the population had constructed the most technically sophisticated city in the world at Mohenjodaro? Sir John Marshall, the British born Director General of the Archeological Survey of India between 1902 and 1928, was convinced that his work at the former cities of Harappa and Mahenjodaro had demonstrated that the Indus civilisation pre-dated that of Sumer and that the Sumerian had grown out of the Harappan. Although the script used by the Indus Valley civilisation has yet to be deciphered, the cuneiform script of the Sumerians has, and curiously, one of the artefacts uncovered and understood is a text, Temple Hymn 31, dated to 2300 BC that reads:

“Ombi-in isaiba amar sootiya”
He who recites this mantra sound Om
Lights up (with radiance)

As the simplified translation infers, the mantra begins with syllable / sound (Om) and ends with the word that the Sumerians used to describe light, illumination, radiance – ‘sootiya’. The Tamils of south India, whose ongoing culture and language were contemporaneous with those that have been mentioned until now, also used the word ‘sootiya’,to mean light, illumination and radiance. Thus it begins with sound and ends in light. This connection between the Tamil language, the oldest of the Dravidian (non-aryan) languages of the subcontinent and the known cuneiform and hieroglyphic languages of the ancient world, is perhaps the most revealing of a common culture that has been lost to the inevitable changes of time.
The idea that the Egyptian, Sumerian and Babylonian civilisations were connected is not a new one. For centuries europeans have speculated and hypothesised that this was the logical development, through time, in that small part of the world. Some too, that the Indian had given rise to the Egyptian. The Egyptians themselves believed that they had, or their culture had, originated in the land that was known by them as Pant, and believed by scholars of the subject, to mean the western facing Malabar coast of the southern Indian peninsula, which aligns with their description of their ancestral homeland in every detail of flora, fauna, geography and climate. If people from the south of India had colonised Africa, presumably arriving at what we call, ‘the horn’ of that magnificent landmass, then those people would have been Dravidian people, keepers of the knowledge of their ancient ancestors, one of whom today, has flowing through his veins, the oldest, non-African DNA yet to be discovered.
At the time that Britain was being re-populated by migrants from the e

European continent to which it was still attached, pastoral peoples grazed their cattle across the temperate savannah lands that occupied the vast area that we now know as the Sahara and into the Levant, Mesopotamia and peninsular Arabia, (that was less of a peninsula at that time, like people, continental plates move!). They depicted their lives in the art with which they decorated the places in which they stayed. Three dimensional figures that were not drawn by Europeans until into the middle ages. Early Byzantine depictions of Christ are in two dimensions, lacking both the depth and the sophistication of those who had etched and sketched in the millennia that had gone before, artists who had so graphically captured every muscle and sinew, hair and tissue of the creatures that they shared their space with, that today, after the passing of thousands of years and being blasted by billions of grains of sand, they are still often as vivid as a photograph.
Buried deep under generations of naturally accumulated sand, were recently uncovered in the Egyptian desert, alters, each of them made to their own fashion. Three of them. Each used until abandoned to the ever advancing and deepening desert, and replaced by the next and another, until ultimately being drowned and lost beneath the waves of sand to await rediscovery. The most recently placed stone alter is known as the ‘cow stone’ for it’s clear resemblance to the same animal and had been put there deliberately, before the first ruler appears on the Egyptian list of kings, before the dawn of that civilisation. It is also clear from modern aerial photographs and computer mapping, that the Nile was 200 miles to the west of it’s present day channel, as it flows into Egypt from the Sudan, far into where the modern day sand dunes have colonised and settled.
The cow had found her place among the deities of the later Egyptians too, the goddess Plater was depicted as a cow, as was Hathor; one of the most ancient of deities; considered to be the mother, of the sun and the moon, the east and the west; a goddess of fertility and joyfulness, she was depicted with a horned cow’s head. From the earliest inscriptions of the old kingdom, circa 3000 BC, until a temple was begun to be constructed in her honour from 237 BC (during the Ptolemaic dynasty), Hathor was held in the hearts of the people with great affection, as many female, ‘mothering’ goddesses are, wherever in the world they are worshipped. She pre-dated the gods that we are more familiar with, Isis (who she’d later be associated with), Osiris and Ra, indeed she gave birth to them as it was she who was the primordial force that brought our world into being, much as Indra, among the Vedic gods was before being displaced by Vishnu, Shiva and their families in the Hindu pantheon. In her incarnation as Heset she appears as a white cow and is associated with the divine cow of the primordial age, Mehe-Heret who brought forth the rains that gave rise to the river Nile and whose name translates as ‘great flood’. The cow was also associated with light, both in Egypt and India. In the former civilisation, the association was with light from the sky and in the latter, the early Hindu storytellers identified the sun god, Indra, as a cow and the word cow itself could also be used to mean, a ‘ray of illumination’, or light. In Sumer and Babylon she was identified with Ninsumun, the mother of the hero of Gilgamesh, and who’s name means, ‘wild cow’, in Sumerian.
In the Seventh Century AD, Saint Isidore of Seville, wrote in his encyclopaedia of knowledge, Etymologiae (IX,2.128) of Ethiopians, that ‘they came in ancient times from the River Indus, established themselves in Egypt between the Nile and the sea’. From the Horn of Africa they spread up the Nile valley. Modern researchers of linguistics understand that the languages of this part of Africa and all those that are spoken to the north and west, are afro-asiatic, not indigenous to the continent, furthermore, research into the genetics of North Africans reveals that what Saint Isidore had written about 1400 years ago, based on the wisdom of long forgotten ancient chroniclers, is not so far from the mark. There is evidence that suggests that people of Dravidian stock arrived in east Africa, bringing their language and culture, each of which over time has metamorphosed, giving the ancient civilisations that we have come to know their culture and it was from the afro-asiatic language group that the semitic languages evolved, the spoken and written languages of today’s North Africa and the Middle East, Arabic and Hebrew among others. By the time that the aryans had arrived on horseback in India, many of the ancient world’s civilisations and the languages spoken there, had been extinguished, their knowledge lost, remaining only to be debated by interested minds. The Sanskrit that they spoke, from then on became the language that would express the ideas of the Hindu cultural outlook. However, had that world view not eons before been created, refined, exported and developed across the seas to far off lands? From Indonesia to India and to the isthmus at Panama, the culture is coherent and continuous in so many facets of the higher thinking necessary in advanced civilisations, that perhaps the horse was needed only to have to pull the carts, that carried the nails for the coffin of any theory advancing the notion of an aryan supremacy. Euro-centric ‘origin of civilisation ‘ theorists have often put the cart before the horse, perhaps it is time to re-evaluate whether or not the horse needs to be in the metaphor at all?






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